Twinkle, Twinkle

Daniel Graham: High Frontier; Tor; New York. Thomas Karas: The New High Ground; Simon and Schuster; New York. James Canan: War in Space; Harper & Row; New York.

These three works deal with aspects of what will be a crucial problem of the next generation: the exploitation of space travel and its effect on the arms race. Daniel Graham's High Frontier advocates convincingly an all-out space effort for both military and economic purposes. James Canan's book is a straight reportorial account of the American side of the arms race and the military aspects of space. Thomas Karas, while giving a comparable description of the military in space, pours cold water on the ideas expressed by Graham and other space-power advocates.

It is no accident that High Frontier has the same title as Gerard K. O'Neill's splendid exploration of the prospects for space industrialization and colonization by the development of orbiting settlements. O'Neill envisages the eventual use of lunar and asteroid sources of raw materials in space to develop whole new industries and energy supplies. Eventually, perhaps, most of earth's industry could move out into space. General Graham looks toward a similar future, though his attention is focused on the first stages of O'Neill's projected scheme—with a heavy dash of political realism. O'Neill looks forward to space as a demilitarized field of purely civilian progress. Graham regards it as an inevitable arena of military competition.

But that is not necessarily...

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